Sand Casting, Investment Casting and Die Casting in China

17-4PH Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel-Casting Material

Alloy (UNS S17400), Type 630, is a chromium-nickel-copper precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steel with an addition of niobium. combines high strength and hardness with good corrosion resistance.

European standard EN10088-3: W.Nr 1.4542; X5CrNiCuNb16-4



Japan: JIS G4303; SUS630.

USA: AISI 630; ASTM A564/A693/A705-Type630; AMS5604; AMS 5622; AMS 5643; AS 7474; SA564/SA693/SA705-Type630; UNS S17400

China: 0Cr17Ni4Cu4Nb; 05Cr17Ni4Cu4Nb

17-4PH Chemical Requirements and Mechanical Property:

USA Standard : ASTM A747 Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Stainless, Precipitation Hardening.
Chromium 15.00 – 17.50

Nickel 3.00 – 5.00

Copper 3.00 – 5.00

Manganese 1.00 max

Silicon 1.00 max

Columbium +Tantalum 0.15- 0.45

Carbon 0.07 max

Phosphorus 0.040 max*

Sulfur 0.030 max*

Molybdenum 0.50 max

Iron remainder

* 0.025 max, AMS 5622

Chinese Standard: 0Cr17Ni4Cu4Nb; 05Cr17Ni4Cu4Nb


Si: ≤1.00









17-4PH Heat treatment process: generally all castings need to be anneal or normalization.
Anneal at 890-910°C
Normalization at 870-890 °C
Manufacture Process: sand casting, precision LOST WAX investment casting.


Propeller shafts, pump shafts, pins, and valve spindles. Corrosion resistance is similar to type 304.

-Used where high strength and good corrosion resistance are required.

-Applications requiring high fatigue strength, good resistance to galling, seizing and stress corrosion.

-Suitable for intricate parts requiring machining and welding.

•Aerospace — structural and parts

• Biomedical — hand tools

• Chemical Processing

• Food Process Equipment

• Gate Valves

• Mechanical Components

• Nuclear Waste Processing and Storage

• Oil and Gas Production — foils, helicopter deck platforms, etc.

• Pulp and Paper — paper mill equipment


17-4PH has been welded by GTAW, GMAW, SMAW, PAW, Electron-beam (EB) and resistance welding. For GMAW a shielding gas of 75% argon and 25% helium is suggested.

Sections up to 1” thick are normally welded in the annealed (A) condition. Highly restrained joints or heavier sections are best welded in conditions H1100 or H1150. Welding of 17-4PH in conditions H900 through H1075 is not recommended.

No preheat is usually necessary for sections up to 4” thick. For restrained welds a 200-300°F (100-150°C) preheat is beneficial.

Matching composition ER630 wire or E630 covered electrodes (AMS 5803, 5825 or 5827) are normally used. Joints to carbon or low alloy steel may be made with ERNiCr-3 wire (alloy 82) or ENiCrFe-3 covered electrodes (alloy 182).

Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) is required. For single pass welds on condition A base metal, simply aging to condition H 900 through H 1150 usually suffices (H 900 condition has very low notch toughness). For multipass welds the structure should be solution annealed after welding, followed by an aging treatment 900-1150ºF.

Notches must be avoided, and partial penetration welds with their built-in notches are quite undesirable. If design considerations force the use of partial penetration welds consider making the root pass only with ERNiCr-3 (alloy 82) wire to minimize notch sensitivity.


Typical machining speeds for 17-4PH, using high speed steel tools are:

Operation                    Speed            Feed

SFPM           IPR

Turning,                             80-95            0.015-0.007

Single Point

Drilling 1/4” dia        50                 0.004

3/4” dia        50                 0.008


under 1/2”     60                 0.003

over 1/2”       60                 0.008

Die Threading

3–7 1/2 TPI   5-12             —

8–15 TPI      8-15              —

over 16 TPI   10-20            —

Tapping                       12-25            —

Milling, End                85          0.001-0.004

and Peripheral

Broaching                    10

When using carbide tools, surface speed feet/minute (SFPM) may be increased 2 to 3 times over high speed suggestions. Feeds can be increased 50 to 100%.

Hot Forming

Heat uniformly at 1742 – 2192°F (950 – 1200°C). A full solution anneal, cooling lower than 76°F (25°C) and aging at the required temperature must occur after hot forming. The post forming heat treatment should be a function of the desired mechanical properties.

Cold Forming

Alloy 17-4PH has limited cold forming properties. Cold forming can only be undertaken on plates in the fully annealed condition. Stress corrosion resistance is enhanced by re-aging at the precipitation hardening temperature after cold working.


Thermal cutting operations such as plasma cutting should be avoided. Mechanical cutting operations such as bandsaw, abrasive waterjet, shearing and machining are preferred.

Heat Treatments for 17-4PH and Their Designation

Designation Processing
Condition A* Heated at 1900°F ± 25°F for 1/2 hour, air (Solution treated) cooled or oil quenched to below 90°F. Normally performed at mill.
H 1075, H 1150 Condition A material heated at 1075 or 1150°F ± 15°F for 4 hours and air cooled.
H 900 Condition A material heated at 900°F ± 15°F for 1 hour and air cooled. Maximum hardness but low toughness. Sensitive to stress corrosion cracking.
H 925, H 1025, H 1100 Condition A material heated at specified temperature for 4 hours and air cooled.
H 1150-M Condition A material heated at 1400 ± 25°F for 2 hours, air cooled, then heated at 1150 ± 15°F for 4 hours and air cooled. This heat treatment used for maximum toughness, and for cryogenic applications to -320°F.

* For most applications, RA17-4 should not be used in Condition A. This is true even though the desired tensile strength may be provided by that condition. While the alloy is relatively soft in Condition A, the structure is untempered martensite that has low fracture toughness and ductility, with poor resistance to stress-corrosion cracking. Superior service performance is assured by using RA17-4 in the heat-treated condition.

Dimensional Change in Hardening – As indicated by the density values, RA17-4 undergoes a volume-contraction when it is hardened. This produces a predictable change in dimensions that must be taken into consideration if parts made of RA17-4 must be manufactured to close tolerances.

The dimensional contraction in hardening Condition A material to Cond. H 900 amounts to 0.0004-0.0006 inches per inch. Hardening to Cond. H 1150 produces a contraction of 0.0009-0.0012 inches per inch. Dimensional changes for other conditions are proportional.

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Sand Casting, Investment Casting and Die Casting in China